Longitudinal Changes in Posttraumatic Stress in Relation to Political Violence (Bloody Sunday)

Karen McGuigan, Mark Shevlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to assess the levels of psychological distress experienced among the families of those killed and those wounded on Bloody Sunday. A longitudinal design was used. A measure of psychological distress was administered to four groups of participants at four times over a period of approximately 4½ years. The Impact of Events Scale–Revised (IES-R) was administered to 69 participants who comprised four groups; those wounded during Bloody Sunday, the immediate family of victims, second-generation family members of victims, and a comparison group. Significant between-group and within-group main effects were found using a mixed analysis of variance. This indicated that there were significant differences in IES-R scores across the four groups and that the scores decreased across time. The group by time interaction was statistically significant, which indicated that the changes in IES-R scores across time differed across groups. The results attest to the persistent and far-reaching effects of traumatic events on individuals, with psychological distress still being reported more than 30 years after the event.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-6
Publication statusPublished - 2010

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