Mapping Irreversible Electrochemical Processes on the Nanoscale: Ionic Phenomena in Li Ion Conductive Glass Ceramics

Thomas M. Arruda, Amit Kumar, Sergei V. Kalinin, Stephen Jesse

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60 Citations (Scopus)


A scanning probe microscopy approach for mapping local irreversible electrochemical processes based on detection of bias-induced frequency shifts of cantilevers in contact with the electrochemically active surface is demonstrated. Using Li ion conductive glass ceramic as a model, we demonstrate near unity transference numbers for ionic transport and establish detection limits for current-based and strain-based detection. The tip-induced electrochemical process is shown to be a first-order transformation and nucleation potential is close to the Li metal reduction potential. Spatial variability of the nucleation bias is explored and linked to the local phase composition. These studies both provide insight into nanoscale ionic phenomena in practical Li-ion electrolyte and also open pathways for probing irreversible electrochemical, bias-induced, and thermal transformations in nanoscale systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4161-4167
Number of pages7
JournalNano Letters
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2011

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