It is widely accepted that silicon-substituted materials enhance bone formation, yet the mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. This work investigates the potential of using diatom frustules to answer on fundamental questions surrounding the role of silica in bone healing. Biosilica with frustules 20m were isolated from Cyclotella meneghiniana a unicellular microalgae that was sourced from the Mississippi River, USA. Silanisation chemistry was used to modify the surface of C. meneghiniana with amine (–NH2) and thiol (–SH) terminated silanes. Untreated frustules and both functionalised groups were soaked in culture medium for 24hrs. Following the culture period, frustules were separated from the conditioned medium by centrifugation and both were tested separately in vitro for cytotoxicity using murine-monocyte macrophage (J774) cell line. Cytotoxicity was measured using LDH release to measure damage to cell membrane, MTS to measure cell viability and live-dead staining. The expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were measured using ELISA. Our results found that diatom frustules and those functionalised with amino groups showed no cytotoxicity or elevated cytokine release. Diatom frustules functionalised with thiol groups showed higher levels of cytotoxicity. Diatom frustules and those functionalised with amino groups were taken forward to an in vivo mouse toxicity model, whereby the immunological response, organ toxicity and route of metabolism/excretion of silica were investigated. Histological results showed no organ toxicity in any of the groups relative to control. Analysis of blood Si levels suggests that modified frustules are metabolised quicker than functionalised frustules, suggesting that physiochemical attributes influence their biodistribution. Our results show that diatom frustules are non cytotoxic and are promising materials to better understand the role of silica in bone healing.
|Publication status||Accepted - 06 Dec 2015|
|Event||6th International Conference on Mechanics of Biomaterials and Tissues - Hawaii, Waikoloa, United States|
Duration: 06 Dec 2015 → 10 Dec 2015
|Conference||6th International Conference on Mechanics of Biomaterials and Tissues|
|Period||06/12/2015 → 10/12/2015|