Vitamin D has been associated with reduced risk of many cancers, but evidence for oesophageal cancer is mixed. To clarify the role of Vitamin D, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association of Vitamin D exposures and oesophageal neoplasia, including adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Barrett's oesophagus and squamous dysplasia. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched from inception to September 2015. Fifteen publications in relation to circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (n=3), Vitamin D intake (n=4), UVB exposure (n=1), and genetic factors (n=7) were retrieved. Higher 25-OHD was associated with increased risk of cancer (adenocarcinoma or SCC, OR=1.39;95%CI:1.04-1.74), with the majority of participants coming from China. No association was observed between Vitamin D intake and risk of cancer overall (OR=1.03;0.65-1.42); however, a non-significantly increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR=1.45;0.65-2.24) and non-significantly decreased risk for SCC (OR=0.80;0.48-1.12) were observed. One study reported a decreased risk of adenocarcinoma with higher UVB exposure. A decreased risk was found for VDR haplotype rs2238135(G)/rs1989969(T) carriers, OR=0.45;0.00-0.91, and a suggestive association was observed for rs2107301. No consistent associations were observed between Vitamin D exposures and occurrence of oesophageal lesions. Further adequately powered, well-designed studies are needed before conclusions can be made.