Massive MU-MIMO downlink TDD systems with linear precoding and downlink pilots

Hien Quoc Ngo, Erik G. Larsson, Thomas L. Marzetta

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

141 Citations (Scopus)


We consider a massive MU-MIMO downlink time-division duplex system where a base station (BS) equipped with many antennas serves several single-antenna users in the same time-frequency resource. We assume that the BS uses linear precoding for the transmission. To reliably decode the signals transmitted from the BS, each user should have an estimate of its channel. In this work, we consider an efficient channel estimation scheme to acquire CSI at each user, called beamforming training scheme. With the beamforming training scheme, the BS precodes the pilot sequences and forwards to all users. Then, based on the received pilots, each user uses minimum mean-square error channel estimation to estimate the effective channel gains. The channel estimation overhead of this scheme does not depend on the number of BS antennas, and is only proportional to the number of users. We then derive a lower bound on the capacity for maximum-ratio transmission and zero-forcing precoding techniques which enables us to evaluate the spectral efficiency taking into account the spectral efficiency loss associated with the transmission of the downlink pilots. Comparing with previous work where each user uses only the statistical channel properties to decode the transmitted signals, we see that the proposed beamforming training scheme is preferable for moderate and low-mobility environments.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAllerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4799-3410-2
Publication statusPublished - 13 Feb 2014


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