We consider a multiple femtocell deployment in a small area which shares spectrum with the underlaid macrocell. We design a joint energy and radio spectrum scheme which aims not only for co-existence with the macrocell, but also for an energy-efficient implementation of the multi-femtocells. Particularly, aggregate energy usage on dense femtocell channels is formulated taking into account the cost of both the spectrum and energy usage. We investigate an energy-and-spectral efficient approach to balance between the two costs by varying the number of active sub-channels and their energy. The proposed scheme is addressed by deriving closed-form expressions for the interference towards the macrocell and the outage capacity. Analytically, discrete regions under which the most promising outage capacity is achieved by the same size of active sub-channels are introduced. Through a joint optimization of the sub-channels and their energy, properties can be found for the maximum outage capacity under realistic constraints. Using asymptotic and numerical analysis, it can be noticed that in a dense femtocell deployment, the optimum utilization of the energy and the spectrum to maximize the outage capacity converges towards a round-robin scheduling approach for a very small outage threshold. This is the inverse of the traditional greedy approach.
Ko, Y., & Moessner, K. (2012). Maximum Outage Capacity in Dense Indoor Femtocell Networks with Joint Energy and Spectrum Utilization. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 11(12), 4416-4425. https://doi.org/10.1109/TWC.2012.092512.112145