A Maxwell fisheye lens using parallel plate index grading is presented in this study to develop a passive retrodirective antenna array. As a proof-of-concept a design frequency of 10 GHz was selected for fabrication and experiment. The design principals of the lens are discussed, which enables 85% energy flow at the drain probe (also referred to as image point) of the lens. It is shown that the image in the Maxwell fisheye lens has a point symmetry with a reverse phase, which makes it possible to realize passive retrodirective action using the lens. This arrangement is significantly more practical than previous passive retrodirective topologies due to the un-constrained number of connections to radiating elements that it can support without the need for multi-layer technology. In the realization described here, a cross-polarized microstrip patch antenna array is connected to the source and drain probes of the lens structure in order to form the retrodirective array. The strategy for selecting the optimal transmission line lengths required to connect the antennas to the lens for maximum re-radiation power is described and implemented. Experimental results for a prototype high efficiency passive retrodirective array based on the theoretical design considerations presented in this paper are reported.