Mechanistical retinal drug targets and challenges

Kai Kaarniranta, Heping Xu, Anu Kauppinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The retina is constantly exposed to light that increases reactive oxygen species in retina. Oxidative stress, inflammation and neurodegeneration are the major contributors in the most common retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Emerging developments and research for novel therapy targets and drug delivery to the posterior segment offer a promising future for the treatment of retinal diseases including rare hereditary diseases. In this review we discuss about promising mechanistical retinal drug targets. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and anti-VEGF treatments are excluded.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)177-184
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Early online date23 Apr 2018
Publication statusEarly online date - 23 Apr 2018


  • Journal Article


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