Mechanochemistry: opportunities for new and cleaner synthesis

Stuart L. James, Christopher J. Adams, Carsten Bolm, Dario Braga, Paul Collier, Tomislav Friscic, Fabrizia Grepioni, Kenneth D.M. Harris, Geoff Hyett, William Jones, Anke Krebs, James Mack, Lucia Maini, A. Guy Orpen, Ivan P. Parkin, William C. Shearouse, Jonathan W. Steed, Daniel C. Waddell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1579 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this critical review is to provide a broad but digestible overview of mechanochemical synthesis, i.e. reactions conducted by grinding solid reactants together with no or minimal solvent. Although mechanochemistry has historically been a sideline approach to synthesis it may soon move into the mainstream because it is increasingly apparent that it can be practical, and even advantageous, and because of the opportunities it provides for developing more sustainable methods. Concentrating on recent advances, this article covers industrial aspects, inorganic materials, organic synthesis, cocrystallisation, pharmaceutical aspects, metal complexes (including metal–organic frameworks), supramolecular aspects and characterization methods. The historical development, mechanistic aspects, limitations and opportunities are also discussed (314 references).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413-447
JournalChemical Society Reviews
Issue number1
Early online date05 Sep 2011
Publication statusPublished - 07 Jan 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)


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