Mediterranean-style diet improves systolic blood pressure and arterial stiffness in older adults: Results of a 1-year european multi-center trial

Amy Jennings, Agnes M. Berendsen, Lisette C.P.G.M. De Groot, Edith J.M. Feskens, Anna Brzozowska, Ewa Sicinska, Barbara Pietruszka, Nathalie Meunier, Elodie Caumon, Corinne Malpuech-Brugère, Aurelia Santoro, Rita Ostan, Claudio Franceschi, Rachel Gillings, Colette M. O'Neill, Sue J. Fairweather-Tait, Anne Marie Minihane, Aedín Cassidy*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
142 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

We aimed to determine the effect of a Mediterranean-style diet, tailored to meet dietary recommendations for older adults, on blood pressure and arterial stiffness. In 12 months, randomized controlled trial (NU-AGE [New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe]), blood pressure was measured in 1294 healthy participants, aged 65 to 79 years, recruited from 5 European centers, and arterial stiffness in a subset of 225 participants. The intervention group received individually tailored standardized dietary advice and commercially available foods to increase adherence to a Mediterranean diet. The control group continued on their habitual diet and was provided with current national dietary guidance. In the 1142 participants who completed the trial (88.2%), after 1 year the intervention resulted in a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (-5.5 mm Hg; 95% CI,-10.7 to-0.4; P=0.03), which was evident in males (-9.2 mm Hg, P=0.02) but not females (-3.1 mm Hg, P=0.37). The-1.7 mm Hg (95% CI,-4.3 to 0.9) decrease in diastolic pressure after intervention did not reach statistical significance. In a subset (n=225), augmentation index, a measure of arterial stiffness, was improved following intervention (-12.4; 95% CI,-24.4 to-0.5; P=0.04) with no change in pulse wave velocity. The intervention also resulted in an increase in 24-hour urinary potassium (8.8 mmol/L; 95% CI, 0.7-16.9; P=0.03) and in male participants (52%) a reduction in pulse pressure (-6.1 mm Hg; 95% CI,-12.0 to-0.2; P=0.04) and 24-hour urinary sodium (-27.1 mmol/L; 95% CI,-53.3 to-1.0; P=0.04). In conclusion, a Mediterranean-style diet is effective in improving cardiovascular health with clinically relevant reductions in blood pressure and arterial stiffness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)578-586
Number of pages9
JournalHypertension
Volume73
Issue number3
Early online date14 Jan 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Mar 2019

Keywords

  • aging
  • blood pressure
  • potassium
  • pulse wave velocity
  • sodium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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