Mycobacterium smegmatis, the saprophytic soil mycobacterium, is routinely used as a surrogate system to study the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis It has also been reported as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised hosts. In addition, it can exist in several ecological setups, thereby suggesting its capacity to adapt to a variety of environmental cues. In this study, we employed untargeted proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR)-based metabolomics to identify metabolites and metabolic pathways critical for early adaptive responses to acidic stress, oxidative stress, and nutrient starvation in Mycobacterium smegmatis We identified 31, 20, and 46 metabolites that showed significant changes in levels in response to acidic, oxidative, and nutrient starvation stresses, respectively. Pathway analyses showed significant perturbations in purine-pyrimidine, amino-acid, nicotinate-nicotinamide, and energy metabolism pathways. Besides these, differential levels of intermediary metabolites involved in α-glucan biosynthesis pathway were observed. We also detected high levels of organic osmolytes, methylamine, and betaine during nutrient starvation and oxidative stress. Further, tracing the differential levels of these osmolytes through computational search tools, gene expression studies (using reverse transcription-PCR [RT-PCR]), and enzyme assays, we detected the presence of a putative pathway of biosynthesis of betaine, methylamine, and dimethylamine previously unreported in Mycobacterium smegmatis IMPORTANCE Alterations in metabolite levels provide fast and direct means to regulate enzymatic reactions and, therefore, metabolic pathways. This study documents, for the first time, the metabolic changes that occur in Mycobacterium smegmatis as a response to three stresses, namely, acidic stress, oxidative stress, and nutrient starvation. These stresses are also faced by intracellular mycobacteria during infection and therefore may be extended to frame therapeutic interventions for pathogenic mycobacteria. In addition to the purine-pyrimidine, amino acid, nicotinate-nicotinamide, and energy metabolism pathways that were found to be affected in response to different stresses, a novel putative methylamine biosynthesis pathway was identified to be present in Mycobacterium smegmatis.