Contrast Induced Nephropathy is the most severe side-effect arising after non-ionic iodinated contrast agents (CAs) intravenous administration. The use of antioxidants (i.e., N-Acetylcysteine; NAC) is one of the attempted prevention approaches. Herein, we describe the microfluidic-assisted synthesis of iodinated polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) as new multifunctional blood pool CA. The aim of this research is to co-encapsulate Iohexol (IOX; iodinated CA) and NAC (preventive agent) into poly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) and PEGylated-PLGA (PLGA-PEG) NPs to exploit CA diagnostic proprieties and NAC preventing antioxidant activity. A microfluidic-assisted nanoprecipitation protocol has been set-up for PLGA and PLGA-PEG NPs, evaluating the effect of formulation and microfluidic parameters by analysing the size, PDI and IOX and NAC encapsulation efficiency. The optimized NPs (PLGA-PEG, L:G 50:50, 5% PEG, Mw 90 kDa) formulated with a size of 67±2.8 nm with PDI<0.2, spherical shape, and an IOX and NAC encapsulation efficiency of 38% and 20%, respectively. The IOX and NAC encapsulation was confirmed by FTIR and DSC. In vitro release study showed an IOX retention into the polymeric matrix and NAC sustained release up to 24-48h stating microfluidics as powerful tool for the formulation of multifunctional nanoplatforms. Finally, the protective effect of NPs and NAC were preliminary assessed on human kidney cells.
|Journal||International Journal of Pharmaceutics|
|Publication status||Accepted - 27 Feb 2021|
- contrast-induced nephropathy
- multifunctional contrast agent