The presented protocol enables a high-throughput continuous preparation of low temperature-sensitive liposomes (LTSLs), which are capable of loading chemotherapeutic drugs, such as doxorubicin (DOX). To achieve this, an ethanolic lipid mixture and ammonium sulfate solution are injected into a staggered herringbone micromixer (SHM) microfluidic device. The solutions are rapidly mixed by the SHM, providing a homogeneous solvent environment for liposomes self-assembly. Collected liposomes are first annealed, then dialyzed to remove residual ethanol. An ammonium sulfate pH-gradient is established through buffer exchange of the external solution by using size exclusion chromatography. DOX is then remotely loaded into the liposomes with high encapsulation efficiency (> 80%). The liposomes obtained are homogenous in size with Z-average diameter of 100 nm. They are capable of temperature-triggered burst release of encapsulated DOX in the presence of mild hyperthermia (42 °C). Indocyanine green (ICG) can also be co-loaded into the liposomes for near-infrared laser-triggered DOX release. The microfluidic approach ensures high-throughput, reproducible and scalable preparation of LTSLs.
- Doxorubicin loading (DOX)
- Indocyanine green (ICG)
- Issue 157
- Staggered herringbone micromixer