Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting after Stress Relieving, Hot Isostatic Pressing Treatment, and Post-Heat Treatment

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Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) is defined as a technology performed for tooling applications. It is used for manufacturing tools that have complex shapes and figures. In this study, an extensively applied Ti-6Al-4V alloy was made using the selective laser melting method. Post-production heat treatments were applied to decrease thermal stresses and to enhance the mechanical properties and the microstructure. The study investigates the fatigue mechanical properties, microstructure, hardness, and porosity of the AM Ti-6Al-4V after stress relieving (SR) and after SR followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The samples’ upper and lower parts were independently examined to determine the effects of thermal conditions and the heat treatment of the microstructure. The microstructures were examined through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction methods. The mechanical properties were investigated through microhardness testing, alongside assessment by fatigue testing at room temperature. The findings demonstrated that the microstructure after SR at 704 °C for 2 h is 100% fine martensitic α'-Ti, with a microhardness value of 408 HV. Air and furnace cooled samples have a more homogenous structure and are characterised by mixture (α + β) with microhardness values of 382 and 356 HV, respectively. After HIP at 920 °C and 100 MPa for 2 h was applied, the martensite was converted into a lamellar (α + β) microstructure, whereby the α phase is presented as fine needles situated among the β ridges in the microstructure, with the existence of the prior β grain boundary.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Materials Engineering and Performance
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2021

Keywords

  • cooling rate
  • martensitic
  • selective laser melting
  • Ti-6Al-4V

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