Activities per year
This paper considers the evolution of Homo sapiens in eastern Africa in relation to refugia and bottlenecks around ~200 ka BP, at a macro scale. Middle Stone Age (MSA) lithics, site distributions and locations are analysed in relation to palaeovegetation maps of the last glacial/interglacial cycle, which are used as a proxy for earlier climate cycles. A ‘‘push and pull’’ model is then postulated for the spread of Homo sapiens out of refugia in eastern Africa, involving both volcanism (push) and habitat availability (pull). A date within OIS 5 is suggested for this expansion to other parts of the continent, and potentially further a?eld, contrary to a frequently proposed expansion within OIS 3. ©2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.