As well as the inflammatory and neoplastic diseases typically associated with other sites in the gastrointestinal tract, the anus has several pathologies related to its function in defecation and continence. Perhaps secondary to modern lifestyles and diets, haemorrhoids are now undoubtedly the most common pathology seen affecting the anus. Incontinence is another major problem that is directly related to anal function and can be the end-point of a variety of pathological processes. A number of iatrogenic pathologies may also be seen at this site, particularly in relation to the treatment of haemorrhoids.
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