Modelling Attack Analysis of Configurable Ring Oscillator (CRO) PUF Designs

Jack Miskelly, Chongyan Gu, Qingqing Ma, Yijun Cui, Weiqiang Liu, Maire O'Neill

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have emerged as a lightweight security primitive for resource constrained devices. However, conventional delay-based Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are vulnerable to machine learning (ML) based modelling attacks. Although ML resistant PUF designs have been proposed, they often suffer from large overheads and are difficult to implement on FPGA. Lightweight ML resistant FPGA compatible designs have been proposed which make use of combined multi-PUF designs, incorporating a set of weak PUFs to obscure the challenge to a strong PUF in order to increase the difficulty of model building. In such designs any unreliability in the main PUF is amplified by unreliability in the masking PUFs. For this reason strong PUFs suitable for FPGA that can achieve high reliability, such as the Configurable Ring Oscillator (CRO) PUF, are a promising option. In this paper a mathematical model of the CRO PUF is presented. We show that models of traditional CRO PUFs can be trained to above 99% prediction rate using the Linear Regression and CMA-ES strategies. A proposed multi-PUF design based on the previously proposed arbiter MPUF is evaluated with the same methods. It is shown that even with challenge obfuscation the CRO PUF can be predicted with greater than 90% accuracy. It is shown that with the addition of a second XORed PUF the ML resistance can be increased further with a maximum prediction rate of 86%.

LanguageEnglish
Title of host publication2018 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (DSP 2018): Proceedings
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages5
Volume2018-November
ISBN (Electronic)9781538668115
ISBN (Print)9781538668115
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 04 Feb 2019
Event23rd IEEE International Conference on Digital Signal Processing, DSP 2018 - Shanghai, China
Duration: 19 Nov 201821 Nov 2018

Conference

Conference23rd IEEE International Conference on Digital Signal Processing, DSP 2018
CountryChina
CityShanghai
Period19/11/201821/11/2018

Fingerprint

Learning systems
Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA)
Hardware security
Linear regression
Mathematical models

Cite this

Miskelly, J., Gu, C., Ma, Q., Cui, Y., Liu, W., & O'Neill, M. (2019). Modelling Attack Analysis of Configurable Ring Oscillator (CRO) PUF Designs. In 2018 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (DSP 2018): Proceedings (Vol. 2018-November). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICDSP.2018.8631638
Miskelly, Jack ; Gu, Chongyan ; Ma, Qingqing ; Cui, Yijun ; Liu, Weiqiang ; O'Neill, Maire. / Modelling Attack Analysis of Configurable Ring Oscillator (CRO) PUF Designs. 2018 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (DSP 2018): Proceedings. Vol. 2018-November Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019.
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abstract = "Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have emerged as a lightweight security primitive for resource constrained devices. However, conventional delay-based Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are vulnerable to machine learning (ML) based modelling attacks. Although ML resistant PUF designs have been proposed, they often suffer from large overheads and are difficult to implement on FPGA. Lightweight ML resistant FPGA compatible designs have been proposed which make use of combined multi-PUF designs, incorporating a set of weak PUFs to obscure the challenge to a strong PUF in order to increase the difficulty of model building. In such designs any unreliability in the main PUF is amplified by unreliability in the masking PUFs. For this reason strong PUFs suitable for FPGA that can achieve high reliability, such as the Configurable Ring Oscillator (CRO) PUF, are a promising option. In this paper a mathematical model of the CRO PUF is presented. We show that models of traditional CRO PUFs can be trained to above 99{\%} prediction rate using the Linear Regression and CMA-ES strategies. A proposed multi-PUF design based on the previously proposed arbiter MPUF is evaluated with the same methods. It is shown that even with challenge obfuscation the CRO PUF can be predicted with greater than 90{\%} accuracy. It is shown that with the addition of a second XORed PUF the ML resistance can be increased further with a maximum prediction rate of 86{\%}.",
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Miskelly, J, Gu, C, Ma, Q, Cui, Y, Liu, W & O'Neill, M 2019, Modelling Attack Analysis of Configurable Ring Oscillator (CRO) PUF Designs. in 2018 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (DSP 2018): Proceedings. vol. 2018-November, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 23rd IEEE International Conference on Digital Signal Processing, DSP 2018, Shanghai, China, 19/11/2018. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICDSP.2018.8631638

Modelling Attack Analysis of Configurable Ring Oscillator (CRO) PUF Designs. / Miskelly, Jack; Gu, Chongyan; Ma, Qingqing; Cui, Yijun; Liu, Weiqiang; O'Neill, Maire.

2018 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (DSP 2018): Proceedings. Vol. 2018-November Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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AU - Gu, Chongyan

AU - Ma, Qingqing

AU - Cui, Yijun

AU - Liu, Weiqiang

AU - O'Neill, Maire

PY - 2019/2/4

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N2 - Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have emerged as a lightweight security primitive for resource constrained devices. However, conventional delay-based Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are vulnerable to machine learning (ML) based modelling attacks. Although ML resistant PUF designs have been proposed, they often suffer from large overheads and are difficult to implement on FPGA. Lightweight ML resistant FPGA compatible designs have been proposed which make use of combined multi-PUF designs, incorporating a set of weak PUFs to obscure the challenge to a strong PUF in order to increase the difficulty of model building. In such designs any unreliability in the main PUF is amplified by unreliability in the masking PUFs. For this reason strong PUFs suitable for FPGA that can achieve high reliability, such as the Configurable Ring Oscillator (CRO) PUF, are a promising option. In this paper a mathematical model of the CRO PUF is presented. We show that models of traditional CRO PUFs can be trained to above 99% prediction rate using the Linear Regression and CMA-ES strategies. A proposed multi-PUF design based on the previously proposed arbiter MPUF is evaluated with the same methods. It is shown that even with challenge obfuscation the CRO PUF can be predicted with greater than 90% accuracy. It is shown that with the addition of a second XORed PUF the ML resistance can be increased further with a maximum prediction rate of 86%.

AB - Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have emerged as a lightweight security primitive for resource constrained devices. However, conventional delay-based Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are vulnerable to machine learning (ML) based modelling attacks. Although ML resistant PUF designs have been proposed, they often suffer from large overheads and are difficult to implement on FPGA. Lightweight ML resistant FPGA compatible designs have been proposed which make use of combined multi-PUF designs, incorporating a set of weak PUFs to obscure the challenge to a strong PUF in order to increase the difficulty of model building. In such designs any unreliability in the main PUF is amplified by unreliability in the masking PUFs. For this reason strong PUFs suitable for FPGA that can achieve high reliability, such as the Configurable Ring Oscillator (CRO) PUF, are a promising option. In this paper a mathematical model of the CRO PUF is presented. We show that models of traditional CRO PUFs can be trained to above 99% prediction rate using the Linear Regression and CMA-ES strategies. A proposed multi-PUF design based on the previously proposed arbiter MPUF is evaluated with the same methods. It is shown that even with challenge obfuscation the CRO PUF can be predicted with greater than 90% accuracy. It is shown that with the addition of a second XORed PUF the ML resistance can be increased further with a maximum prediction rate of 86%.

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DO - 10.1109/ICDSP.2018.8631638

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 9781538668115

VL - 2018-November

BT - 2018 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (DSP 2018): Proceedings

PB - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.

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Miskelly J, Gu C, Ma Q, Cui Y, Liu W, O'Neill M. Modelling Attack Analysis of Configurable Ring Oscillator (CRO) PUF Designs. In 2018 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (DSP 2018): Proceedings. Vol. 2018-November. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. 2019 https://doi.org/10.1109/ICDSP.2018.8631638