Objective: To identify modifiable factors associated with sessile serrated polyps (SSPs), and compare the association of these factors to conventional adenomas (ADs) and hyperplastic polyps (HPs). Design: We utilized data from the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study, a colonoscopy-based case-control study. Included were 214 SSP cases, 1779 AD cases, 560 HP cases and 3851 polyp-free controls. Results: Cigarette smoking was associated with increased risk for all polyps and was stronger for SSPs than for ADs (OR 1.74. 95% CI: 1.16-2.62, for current vs. never, ptrend=0.008). Current regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAID) was associated with a 40% reduction in SSPs risk in comparison to never-users (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.96, ptrend=0.03), similar to the association with AD. Red meat intake was strongly associated with SSPs risk (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.41-4.74 for highest vs. lowest intake, ptrend<0.001) and the association with SSP was stronger than with AD (ptrend=0.003). Obesity, folate intake, fiber intake, and fat intake were not associated with SSP risk after adjustment for other factors. Exercise, alcohol use, and calcium intake were not associated with risk for SSPs. Conclusion: SSPs share some modifiable risk factors for ADs, some of which are more strongly associated with SSPs than ADs. Thus, preventive efforts to reduce risk for ADs may also be applicable to SSPs. Additionally, SSPs have some distinctive risk factors. Future studies should evaluate the preventive strategies for these factors. The findings from this study also contribute to an understanding of the etiology and biology of SSPs.
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