Tryptophyllins are a group of small (4–14 amino acids), heterogenous peptides, mostly from the skins of hylid frogs from the genera, Phyllomedusa and Litoria. To date, more than forty TPHs have been discovered in species from these two genera. Here, we describe the identification of a novel tryptophyllin type 3 peptide, PhT-3, from the extracts of skin of the orange-legged monkey frog, Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis, and molecular cloning of its precursor-encoding cDNA from a cDNA library constructed from the same skin sample. Full primary structural characterization was achieved using a combination of direct Edman degradation, mass spectrometry and deduction from cloned skin-derived cDNA. The open-reading frame of the precursor cDNA was found to consist of 63 amino acid residues. The mature peptide arising from this precursor contains a post-translationally modified N-terminal pyroglutamate (pGlu) residue, formed from acid-mediated cyclization of an N-terminal Gln (Q) residue, and with the structure: pGlu-Asp-Lys-Pro-Phe-Trp-Pro-Pro-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Pro-Met. Pharmacological assessment of a synthetic replicate of this peptide on phenylephrine preconstricted rat tail artery segments, revealed a reduction in relaxation induced by bradykinin. PhT-3 was also found to mediate antiproliferative effects on human prostate cancer cell lines.
- amphibian skin peptide; anticancer effect; bradykinin antagonist; Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis; Tryptophyllins