Novel mucoadhesive formulations containing hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC; 3 and 5%, w/w) or Carbopol (3 and 5%, w/w), polycarbophil (PC; 1 and 3%, w/w) and metronidazole (5%, w/w) at pH 6.8 were designed for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Each formulation was characterised in terms of hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness and cohesiveness (using Texture Profile Analysis), drug release, adhesion to a mucin disc (measured as a detachment force using the texture analyser in tensile mode) and, finally, syringeability (using the texture analyser in compression mode). Drug release from all formulations was non-diffusion controlled. Drug release was significantly decreased as the concentration of each polymeric component was increased, due to both the concomitant increased viscosity of the formulations and, additionally, the swelling kinetics of PC following contact with dissolution fluid. Increasing the concentrations of each polymeric component significantly increased formulation hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, mucoadhesion and syringeability, yet decreased cohesiveness. Increased product hardness, compressibility and syringeability were due to polymeric effects on formulation viscosity. The effects on cohesiveness may be explained both by increased viscosity and also by the increasing semi-solid nature of products containing 5% HEC or Carbopol and PC (1 or 3%). The observations concerning formulation adhesiveness/mucoadhesion illustrate the adhesive nature of each polymeric component. Greatest adhesion was noted in formulations where neutralisation of PC was maximally suppressed. For the most part, increased time of contact between formulation and mucin significantly increased the required force of detachment, due to the greater extent of mucin polymer hydration and interpenetration with the formulations. Significant statistical interactions were observed between the effects of each polymer on drug release and mechanical/mucoadhesive properties. These interactions may be explained by formulatory effects on the extent of swelling of PC. In conclusion, the formulations described offered a wide range of mechanical and drug release characteristics. Formulations containing HEC exhibited superior physical characteristics for improved drug delivery to the periodontal pocket and are now the subject of long-term clinical investigations. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Controlled Release|
|Publication status||Published - 1997|