This manuscript presents a comparative study of the physico-chemical behaviour of sulfobetaine-type single and double zwitterions and zwitterionic salts, and structurally similar mono-and di-cationic tetraalkylammonium salts in aqueous solutions. The study includes experimental determination of the density and viscosity of highly diluted aqueous solutions with derivation of the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, partial molal volumes at infinite dilution, and hydration numbers. The study also examines the effects of addition of the salts on the surface tension of cationic and anionic surfactants, upper critical solution temperature of a non-ionic surfactant, solubility of amino acids, and stability of a protein. The experimental investigation was performed taking a broad bottom-up approach with the aim to elucidate the effect of molecular architecture and charge (two versus four) on the degree of surface hydration of a molecule, kosmotropicity, and interactions with charged and hydrophilic/hydrophobic surfaces - all-important characteristics which define ability of a functional group to resist protein attachment. The novel multicharged zwitterionic materials have exhibited superior qualities, thus paving the way to development of a new platform in design of hydrophilic and anti-fouling surfaces by employing the four-charge bearing molecular motifs.
- aqueous solution, zwitterion, zwitterionic salt, tetraalkylammonium, surface tension, viscosity, density, Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, protein, solubility, amino acid