Multifidelity simulation of underhood thermal system for a bus engine

Konstantinos Karamanos, Ehsan Afrasiabian, Sung in Kim, Roy Douglas, Yasser Mahmoudi

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This study performs a combined 0-dimensional/3-dimensional modelling approach to investigate the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of bus thermal management systems. The 3-dimensional model is deployed to develop new correlations for the heat transfer coefficient (Colburn-j factor) and the friction factor (Fanning-f factor) at the air-side of the multi-louver radiator and charge-air cooler. The effect of the fan operation is also taken into account. The existing correlations in the literature developed for cars where the radiator and charge-air cooler are placed in the front section of the vehicle exposed to a uniform incoming air flow. While in buses, these components are placed at the vehicle rear section and in contact with a turbulent and non-uniform air flow, highlighting the need for development of new Colburn-j factor and Fanning-f factor for air flow within the louvered fins in these two components The coefficients developed are incorporated into the 0-dimensional model to predict the thermal characteristics of the bus underhood for a range of operating conditions. The 0-dimensional model simulates the heat interaction of the multiple thermodynamic systems. Thus, a better understanding of the thermal management is achieved by investigating the energy distribution within the engine compartment and describing the performance of the thermal systems. The 0-dimensional/3-dimensional model is examined under the peak brake power condition. A coolant mass flow rate of 3.74 kg/s and fans speed of 4000 rpm are the most optimum results since the coolant’s temperature is decreased by 5 °C and the parasitic losses are kept at minimum.
Original languageEnglish
Article number117707
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Early online date10 Nov 2021
Publication statusEarly online date - 10 Nov 2021


  • Thermal management
  • 0D/3D simulations
  • Heat transfer coefficient
  • Friction factor


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