Multiplication of microbes below 0.690 water activity: implications for terrestrial and extraterrestrial life

Andrew Stevenson, Juergen Burkhardt, Charles S. Cockell, Jonathan A. Cray, Jan Dijksterhuis, Mark Fox-Powell, Terence P. Kee, Gerhard Kminek, Terry J. McGenity, Kenneth N. Timmis, David J. Timson, Mary A. Voytek, Frances Westall, Michail M. Yakimov, John E. Hallsworth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

84 Citations (Scopus)


Since a key requirement of known life forms is available water (water activity; aw), recent searches for signatures of past life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have targeted places known to have contained significant quantities of biologically available water. However, early life on Earth inhabited high-salt environments, suggesting an ability to withstand low water-activity. The lower limit of water activity that enables cell division appears to be ∼ 0.605 which, until now, was only known to be exhibited by a single eukaryote, the sugar-tolerant, fungal xerophile Xeromyces bisporus. The first forms of life on Earth were, though, prokaryotic. Recent evidence now indicates that some halophilic Archaea and Bacteria have water-activity limits more or less equal to those of X. bisporus. We discuss water activity in relation to the limits of Earth's present-day biosphere; the possibility of microbial multiplication by utilizing water from thin, aqueous films or non-liquid sources; whether prokaryotes were the first organisms able to multiply close to the 0.605-aw limit; and whether extraterrestrial aqueous milieux of ≥ 0.605 aw can resemble fertile microbial habitats found on Earth.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-277
Number of pages21
JournalEnvironmental Microbiology
Early online date28 Sep 2014
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2015

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Multiplication of microbes below 0.690 water activity: implications for terrestrial and extraterrestrial life'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this