The simultaneous delivery of multiple cancer drugs in combination therapies to achieve optimal therapeutic effects in patients can be challenging. This study investigated whether co-encapsulation of the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 and the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin (CPT) in PEGylated polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) was a viable strategy for overcoming their clinical limitations and to deliver both compounds at optimal ratios. We found that thrombocytopenia induced by exposure to ABT-737 was diminished through its encapsulation in NPs. Similarly, CPT-associated leukopenia and gastrointestinal toxicity were reduced compared with the administration of free CPT. In addition to the reduction of dose-limiting side effects, the co-encapsulation of both anticancer compounds in a single NP produced synergistic induction of apoptosis in both in vitro and in vivo colorectal cancer models. This strategy may widen the therapeutic window of these and other drugs and may enhance the clinical efficacy of synergistic drug combinations.