Nanomaterials-assisted photothermal therapy for breast cancer: State-of-the-art advances and future perspectives

Sagnik Nag, Oishi Mitra, Garima Tripathi, Israrahmed Adur, Sourav Mohanto, Muskan Nama, Souvik Samanta, B H Jaswanth Gowda, Vetriselvan Subramaniyan, Vino Sundararajan, Vinoth Kumarasamy

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Breast cancer (BC) remains an enigmatic fatal modality ubiquitously prevalent in different parts of the world. Contemporary medicines face severe challenges in remediating and healing breast cancer. Due to its spatial specificity and nominal invasive therapeutic regime, photothermal therapy (PTT) has attracted much scientific attention down the lane. PTT utilizes a near-infrared (NIR) light source to irradiate the tumor target intravenously or non-invasively, which is converted into heat energy over an optical fibre. Dynamic progress in nanomaterial synthesis was achieved with specialized visual, physicochemical, biological, and pharmacological features to make up for the inadequacies and expand the horizon of PTT. Numerous nanomaterials have substantial NIR absorption and can function as efficient photothermal transducers. It is achievable to limit the wavelength range of an absorbance peak for specific nanomaterials by manipulating their synthesis, enhancing the precision and quality of PTT. Along the same lines, various nanomaterials are conjugated with a wide range of surface-modifying chemicals, including polymers and antibodies, which may modify the persistence of the nanomaterial and diminish toxicity concerns. In this article, we tend to put forth specific insights and fundamental conceptualizations on pre-existing PTT and its advances upon conjugation with different biocompatible nanomaterials working in synergy to combat breast cancer, encompassing several strategies like immunotherapy, chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy coupled with PTT. Additionally, the role or mechanisms of nanoparticles, as well as possible alternatives to PTT, are summarized as a distinctive integral aspect in this article.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103959
Number of pages18
JournalPhotodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Early online date25 Jan 2024
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • Nanoparticles
  • Nanomaterials
  • Photothermal therapy
  • Near-infrared
  • Cancer
  • Breast cancer


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