Nitric Oxide-Mediated Signaling in the Bystander Response of Individually Targeted Glioma Cells.

C. Shao, V. Stewart, M. Folkard, B.D. Michael, Kevin Prise

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216 Citations (Scopus)


Bystander responses have been reported to be a major determinant of the response of cells to radiation exposure at low doses, including those of relevance to therapy. In this study, human glioblastoma T98G cell nuclei were individually irradiated with an exact number of helium ions using a single-cell microbeam. It was found that when only 1 cell in a population of approximately 1200 cells was targeted, with one or five ions, cellular damage measured as induced micronuclei was increased by 20%. When a fraction from 1% to 20% of cells were individually targeted, the micronuclei yield in the population greatly exceeded that predicted on the basis of the micronuclei yield when all of the cells were targeted assuming no bystander effect was occurring. However when 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5- tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO), a nitric oxide (NO)-specific scavenger was present in the culture medium, the micronuclei yields reduced to the predicted values, which indicates that NO contributes to the bystander effect. By using 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM), NO was detected in situ, and it was found that NO-induced fluorescence intensity in the irradiated population where 1% of cell nuclei were individually targeted with a single helium ion was increased by 1.13 +/- 0.02-fold (P <0.005) relative to control with approximately 40% of the cells showing increased NO levels. Moreover, the medium harvested from helium ion-targeted cells showed a cytotoxic effect by inducing micronuclei in unirradiated T98G cells, and this bystander response was also inhibited by c-PTIO treatment. The induction of micronuclei in the population could also be decreased by c-PTIO treatment when 100% of cells were individually targeted by one or two helium ions, indicating a complex interaction of direct irradiation and bystander signals.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8437-8442
Number of pages6
JournalCancer Research
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 01 Dec 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology


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