### Abstract

We present a review of two methods used to model recent LCLS experimental results for the 3C/3D line intensity ratio of Fe XVII (S. Bernitt, et al.

*Nature*,**492**, 225 (2012)), the time-dependent collisional-radiative method and the density matrix approach. These are described and applied to a two-level atomic system excited by an X-ray free electron laser. A range of pulse parameters is explored and the effects on the predicted Fe XVII 3C and 3D line intensity ratio are calculated. To investigate the behavior of the predicted line intensity ratio, a particular pair of*A*-values for the 3C and 3D transitions was chosen (2.22 × 10^{13}s^{−1}and 6.02 × 10^{12}s^{−1}for 3C and 3D, respectively), but our conclusions are independent of the precise values. We also reaffirm the conclusions from Oreshkina et al. (N.S. Oreshkina, et al.*Phys. Rev. Lett.***113**, 143001 (2014); Ibid.*J. Phys. B*,**49**, 094003 (2015)): the nonlinear effects in the density matrix are important and the reduction in the Fe XVII 3C/3D line intensity ratio is sensitive to the laser pulse parameters, namely, pulse duration, pulse intensity, and laser bandwidth. It is also shown that for both models the lowering of the 3C/3D line intensity ratio below the expected time-independent oscillator strength ratio has a significant contribution due to its emission from the plasma after the laser pulse has left the plasma volume. Laser intensities above ∼1 × 10^{12}W/cm^{2}are required for a reduction in the 3C/3D line intensity ratio below the expected time-independent oscillator strength ratio.Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 869-877 |

Number of pages | 9 |

Journal | Canadian Journal of Physics |

Volume | 95 |

Issue number | 9 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2017 |

### Keywords

- Fe XVII, XFEL, LCLS, oscillator strength, non-equilibrium.

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## Cite this

Li, Y., Loch, S., Fogle, M., Ballance, C., & Fontes, C. (2017). Non-equilibrium modeling of the Fe XVII 3C/3D ratio for an intense X-ray free electron laser.

*Canadian Journal of Physics*,*95*(9), 869-877. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjp-2016-0882