Non-state actors in hybrid global climate governance: justice, legitimacy, and effectiveness in a post-Paris era

Jonathan W. Kuyper, Björn‐Ola Linnér, Heike Schroeder

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In this article, we outline the multifaceted roles played by non-state actors within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and place this within the wider landscape of global climate governance. In doing so, we look at both the formation and aftermath of the 2015 Paris Agreement. We argue that the Paris Agreement cements an architecture of hybrid multilateralism that enables and constrains non-state actor participation in global climate governance. We flesh out the constitutive features of hybrid multilateralism, enumerate the multiple positions non-state actors may employ under these conditions, and contend that non-state actors will play an increasingly important role in the post-Paris era. To substantiate these claims, we assess these shifts and ask how non-state actors may affect the legitimacy, justice, and effectiveness of the Paris Agreement.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere497
Number of pages18
JournalWiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change
Issue number1
Early online date08 Nov 2017
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018

Bibliographical note

Cited By :2

Export Date: 19 September 2018

Correspondence Address: Kuyper, J.W.; Department of Political Science, University of OsloNorway; email:

Funding details: P16-0242:1, Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas

Funding details: 2011-779, Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas

Funding text: We would like to thank the Swedish Research Council Formas for partly funding the research through the project ‘A Global Potluck: Cross-national patterns of state engagement and performance in the new landscape of international climate cooperation’ (Grant No 2011-779) and Riksbanken Jubileumsfond project ‘Beyond gridlock in global governance: Democracy, politicization, and legitimacy’ (Project No P16-0242:1). We are also grateful for two anonymous reviewers and the editors of WIREs Climate Change for very valuable suggestions.

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  • Environmental regulations
  • Global warming
  • Global climates
  • Multilateralism
  • Non state actors
  • United nations framework convention on climate changes
  • Climate change
  • climate change
  • environmental policy
  • global climate
  • governance approach
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


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