Purpose: We characterized interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-8 receptor expression (CXCR1 and CXCR2) in prostate cancer to address their significance to this disease. Experimental Design: Immunohistochemistry was conducted on 40 cases of human prostate biopsy containing histologically normal and neoplastic tissue, excised from patients with locally confined or invasive androgen-dependent prostate cancer, and 10 cases of transurethral resection of the prostate material from patients with androgen-independent disease. Results: Weak to moderate IL-8 expression was strictly localized to the apical membrane of normal prostate epithelium. In contrast, membranous expression of IL-8, CXCR1, and CXCR2 was nonapical in cancer cells of Gleason pattern 3 and 4, whereas circumferential expression was present in Gleason pattern 5 and androgen-independent prostate cancer. Each of IL-8, CXCR1, and CXCR2 were also increasingly localized to the cytoplasm of cancer cells in correlation with advancing stage of disease. Cytoplasmic expression (but not apical membrane expression) of IL-8 in Gleason pattern 3 and 4 cancer correlated with Ki-67 expression (R = 0.79; P <0.001), cyclin D1 expression (R = 0.79; P <0.001), and microvessel density (R = 0.81; P <0.001). In vitro studies on androgen-independent PC3 cells confirmed the mitogenic activity of IL-8, increasing the rate of cell proliferation through activation of both CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors. Conclusions: We propose that the concurrent increase in IL-8 and IL-8 receptor expression in human prostate cancer induces autocrine signaling that may be functionally significant in initiating and promoting the progression of prostate cancer by underpinning cell proliferation and angiogenesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research