Novel biomarkers of acute kidney injury after contrast coronary angiography

M. Connolly*, D. McEneaney, Ian Menown, N. Morgan, M. Harbinson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Acute kidney injury (AKI), defined as a rise in serum creatinine of greater than 25% from baseline measured at 48 hours after renal insult, may follow iodinated contrast coronary angiography. Termed contrast-induced nephropathy, it can result in considerable morbidity and mortality. Measurement of serum creatinine as a functional biomarker of glomerular filtration rate is widely used for detection of AKI, but it lacks sensitivity for the early diagnosis of AKI (typically rising 24 hours after functional loss) and, as a solely functional marker of glomerular filtration rate, is unable to differentiate among the various causes of AKI. These intrinsic limitations to creatinine measurement and the recognition that improved clinical outcomes are linked to a more timely diagnosis of AKI, has led investigators to search for novel biomarkers of "early" kidney injury. Several studies have investigated the utility of renal injury biomarkers in a variety of clinical settings including angiography/percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, sepsis in intensive care patients, and pediatric cardiac surgery. In this article, we discuss the use of iodinated contrast for coronary procedures and the risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy, followed by a review the potential diagnostic utility of several novel biomarkers of early AKI in the clinical settings of coronary angiography/percutaneous coronary intervention. In particular, we discuss neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin in depth. If validated, such biomarkers would facilitate earlier AKI diagnosis and improve clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)240-246
Number of pages7
JournalCardiology in Review
Volume23
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2015

Keywords

  • Acute kidney injury
  • Contrast-induced nephropathy
  • Coronary angiography
  • Iodinated contrast
  • Novel biomarkers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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