Ageing is the main risk factor common to most primary neurodegenerative disorders. Indeed, age-related brain alterations have been long considered to predispose to neurodegeneration. Although protein misfolding and the accumulation of toxic protein aggregates have been contemplated as causative events in neurodegeneration, several biological pathways affected by brain ageing also contribute to pathogenesis. Here, we discuss the evidence showing the involvement of the mechanisms controlling neuronal structure, gene expression, autophagy, cell metabolism, and neuroinflammation in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, we review the therapeutic strategies currently under development or as future approaches designed to normalize these pathways which may then boost brain resilience to cope with toxic protein species. In addition to therapies targeting the insoluble protein aggregates specifically associated with each neurodegenerative disorder, these novel pharmacological approaches may be part of combined therapies designed to rescue brain function.