Numerical investigation of dual-stage high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process: A study on nozzle geometrical parameters

Hamed Jafari, Sobhan Emami, Yasser Mahmoudi

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13 Citations (Scopus)
309 Downloads (Pure)


The present study takes the advantage of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to model steady-state, two-dimensional, axisymmetric, turbulent, compressible and combusting flow in a dual-stage high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray system. The Eulerian method is used to solve the continuum gas phase and the Lagrangian method is utilized for tracking the particles. The effects of particle loads on the continuous gas phase are included in the simulation. Thus, compared to the previous studies, we investigate the influence of coupling between the particle and gas phases in modeling of the dual-stage HVOF process. It is found that decouple modeling of the particle and the continuous phase causes a significant error in velocity of particle at the impact moment, even for low powder particle loading. We further investigate the effects of four geometrical parameters on the behavior of gas phase and consequently the particle phase. Results also show that the turbulent intensity of flow at different sections of the warm spray process is the most important factor determining the radial distribution of nitrogen and temperature in the barrel. It also determines the radial distribution of oxygen in the free jet outside of the barrel. It is further found that reduction of the first nozzle diameter and increasing the length of the divergent section (for a fixed divergent angle) of the convergent-divergent nozzle reduce the particle temperature while these changes do not affect the particle velocity. In other words, changing these geometrical parameters has a desirable effect on the particle temperature without causing an undesirable change on the particle velocity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)745-758
Number of pages14
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Early online date27 Sep 2016
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jan 2017

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