Nurse‐perceived facilitators and barriers to palliative care in patients with kidney disease: A European Delphi survey

Ilaria de Barbieri, Veronica Strini, Helen Noble, Stefano Amatori*, Davide Sisti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
132 Downloads (Pure)



The palliative care phenomenon is increasingly invested in all medicine and nursing fields, as care for people with kidney disease who do not wish to embark on dialysis: it encompasses a palliative approach to shared decision-making. To deliver patient-centred optimal care, nephrology healthcare staff should be knowledgeable about palliative care and the appropriate conservative management approach.


This paper aimed to explore, using a Delphi survey, the barriers and facilitators to palliative care in patients with kidney disease.


An e-Delphi technique with three questionnaire rounds was performed; statements were generated using Likert scales. 

Participants and Measurements: 

A list of 80 statements related to palliative care in patients with kidney disease was divided into facilitators and barriers. Questionnaires were administered to 13 nephrology nurse experts in some European countries. 


Seven items were removed from the list of 80 statements after the first round of the Delphi study; eight items achieved a significant change of the mean between round two and three, whereas internal stability emerged in all the remaining items. 


Specific training and education in palliative care emerged as a facilitator, as well as the role of spiritual and beliefs and the role of family and caregiver. The main barriers were represented by the differences in cultures, beliefs, and practices and by the lack of experience in the role of the staff in palliative care. These statements provide a platform for future research to improve palliative care practice in patients with kidney disease.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of renal care
Early online date24 Mar 2021
Publication statusEarly online date - 24 Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. Journal of Renal Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Dialysis & Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • conservative management
  • Delphi studies
  • end-stage kidney disease
  • nurse
  • palliative care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Advanced and Specialised Nursing


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