Orbital and strongly orbital spaces

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We say that a (countably dimensional) topological vector space X is orbital if there is T∈L(X) and a vector x∈X such that X is the linear span of the orbit {Tnx:n=0,1,…}. We say that X is strongly orbital if, additionally, x can be chosen to be a hypercyclic vector for T. Of course, X can be orbital only if the algebraic dimension of X is finite or infinite countable. We characterize orbital and strongly orbital metrizable locally convex spaces. We also show that every countably dimensional metrizable locally convex space X does not have the invariant subset property. That is, there is T∈L(X) such that every non-zero x∈X is a hypercyclic vector for T. Finally, assuming the Continuum Hypothesis, we construct a complete strongly orbital locally convex space.

As a byproduct of our constructions, we determine the number of isomorphism classes in the set of dense countably dimensional subspaces of any given separable infinite dimensional Fréchet space X. For instance, in X=ℓ2×ω, there are exactly 3 pairwise non-isomorphic (as topological vector spaces) dense countably dimensional subspaces.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)794-815
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Mathematical Analysis and its Applications
Issue number2
Early online date30 May 2013
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2014


  • hypercyclic, cyclic vectors, topological vector spaces

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