Primary care in the United States is undergoing many changes. Reliable and valid instruments are needed to assess the effects of these changes. The Primary Care Organizational Questionnaire (PCOQ), a 56-item 5-point Likert scale survey that evaluates interactions among members of the clinic/practice and job-related attributes, was administered to clinicians and staff in 36 primary care practices serving paediatric populations in Connecticut. A priori scales were reliable (Cronbach alpha =0.7). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed greater heterogeneity across clinics than within clinics for 13 of 15 a priori scales, which were then included in a principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation. Eigenvalue analysis showed nine significant factors, largely similar to the a priori scales, indicating concurrent construct validity. Further research will ascertain the utility of the PCOQ in predicting the effectiveness of primary care practices in implementing disease management programmes.