Power systems are rapidly transitioning towards having an increasing proportion of electricity from inverter-based resources (IBR) such as wind and solar. An inevitable consequence of a power system transition towards 100% IBR is the loss of synchronous generators with their associated inertia, frequency, and voltage control mechanisms. To ensure future grid needs can be met, the source of system services to meet these needs must change from synchronous plants to IBR. Under this context, the main objective is to extensively review grid frequency stability challenges concerning the massive integration of IBR from the perspective of system operators. Following that, the newly established international fast frequency response services in different renewable dominant power systems to address low inertia challenges are compared from various perspectives. Finally, potential solutions based on various renewable enabling technologies and renewable sources are investigated from the standpoint of their expectation to play an active role in the energy system and to provide a wide range of system frequency services. The findings of this study provide a deep understanding of prospective frequency control solutions and an actionable dataset that will support various research and policy needs as we approach net-zero targets.
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Information Systems