Pandemic-related pregnancy stress among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain

Jaqueline Garcia-Silva, Alfonso Caracuel, Alvaro Lozano-Ruiz*, Fiona Alderdice, Marci Lobel, Oliver Perra, Rafael A. Caparros-Gonzalez

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
60 Downloads (Pure)


Objective: The aim was to develop and establish the psychometric properties of the Pandemic-Related Pregnancy Stress Scale (PREPS) in European Spanish speaking pregnant women in Spain. 

Design: A cross section design using a non-random sample of 206 women completed the questionnaire during the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown from April to June 2020 in Spain. Psychological, sociodemographic and obstetric factors and the new PREPS were collected. 

Results: Bartlett's test of sphericity (χ2(105) = 580.36, p < .001), and KMO = .79 confirmed appropriateness for factor analysis of the PREPS. Confirmatory factor analyses based on the factor structure of the original USA English version of this instrument confirmed three factors - Preparedness Stress (7 items), Perinatal Infection Stress (5 items), and Positive Appraisal (3 items). The 15-item version of the PREPS demonstrates internal consistency and reliability are adequate (α > .77), and for F1 - Preparedness (α > .65), for F2 - Infection (α > 0.60) and for F3 - Positive appraisal (α > .55). The three factors exhibited good inter-item correlations, (F1 – Preparedness: .21; F2 – Infection: .23, and F3 – Positive Appraisal: .29). Convergent validity was examined through the Pearson's correlation coefficients of the PREPS with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire (PDQ). Correlation between PREPS total and PSS was high, and moderate with PDQ (p < .05). 

Conclusion: The psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the PREPS make it a valuable psychological measure to assess pandemic-related stress among pregnant women.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103163
Early online date06 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Not applicable.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021


  • COVID-19
  • Pandemic-related pregnancy stress
  • Prenatal maternal stress
  • Psychometric properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Maternity and Midwifery


Dive into the research topics of 'Pandemic-related pregnancy stress among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this