The detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in contaminated shellfish is essential for human health preservation. Ethical and technical reasons have prompted the search for new detection procedures as an alternative to the mouse bioassay. On the basis of the detection of molecular interactions by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors, an inhibition assay was developed using an anti-GTX2/3 antibody (GT13-A) and a saxitoxin-CM5 chip. This assay allowed for quantification of saxitoxin (STX), decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), gonyautoxin 2,3 (GTX2/3), decarbamoyl gonyautoxin 2,3 (dcGTX2/3), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5), and C 1,2 (C1/2) at concentrations from 2 to 50 ng/mL. The interference of five shellfish matrixes with the inhibition assay was analyzed. Mussels, clams, cockles, scallops, and oysters were extracted with five published methods. Ethanol extracts and acetic acid/heat extracts (AOAC Lawrence method) performed adequately in terms of surface regeneration and baseline interference, did not inhibit antibody binding to the chip surface significantly, and presented STX calibration curves similar to buffer controls in all matrixes tested. Hydrochloric acid/heat extracts (AOAC mouse bioassay method) presented surface regeneration problems, and although ethanol-acetic acid/dichloromethane extracts performed well, they were considered too laborious for routine sample testing. Overall the best results were obtained with the ethanol extraction method with calibration curves prepared in blank matrix extracts. STX recovery rate with the ethanol extraction method was 60.52 ± 3.72%, with variations among species. The performance of this biosensor assay in natural samples, compared to two AOAC methods for PSP toxin quantification (mouse bioassay and HPLC), suggests that this technology can be useful as a PSP screening assay. In summary, the GT13-A-STX chip inhibition assay is capable of PSP toxin detection in ethanol shellfish extracts, with sufficient sensitivity to quantify the toxin in the range of the European regulatory limit of 80 g/100 g of shellfish meat.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry