Passive Intermodulation in Distributed Circuits with Cascaded Discrete Nonlinearities

Dmitry S. Kozlov, Alexey P. Shitvov, Alexander G. Schuchinsky

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

14 Citations (Scopus)
394 Downloads (Pure)


The principle aspects of passive intermodulation (PIM) characterisation in distributed printed circuits with cascaded lumped nonlinearities are presented. Mechanisms of PIM generations have been investigated experimentally and modelled using the formalism of X-parameters. The devised equivalent circuit models are applied to the analysis of microstrip lines with distributed and cascaded lumped sources of nonlinearity. The dynamic measurements have revealed that PIM generation rates in straight and meandered microstrip lines differ and significantly deviate from those expected for the respective discrete sources of nonlinearity. The obtained results indicate that multiple physical sources of nonlinearity contribute to PIM generation in printed circuits. Finally, it is demonstrated that the electrical discontinuities can have significant effect on the overall PIM response of the distributed passive circuits and cause PIM product leakage and parasitic coupling between isolated circuit elements.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2015 9th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP)
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages5
ISBN (Print)978-88-907018-5-6
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2015
Event9th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2015 - Lisbon, Portugal
Duration: 13 May 201517 May 2015


Conference9th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2015
Abbreviated titleEuCAP 2015
Internet address


  • intermodulation distortion
  • passive intermodulation (PIM)
  • distributed nonlinearity
  • X-parameters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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