Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an incurable disorder that is associated with ovarian dysfunction. It affects millions of women in the UK. The signs and symptoms of PCOS include ovarian cysts, acne and excess hair growth (hirsutism), and can have a negative effect on the self-esteem of women with the condition. PCOS is also a potential cause of reduced fertility. This article uses a case study approach to discuss the pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, and diagnosis of PCOS, as well as complications, treatment and psychosocial implications of the condition.