Patient and Public Involvement in research: A journey to co-production

Amy Price, Mike Clarke, Sophie Staniszewska, Larry Chu, Doreen Tembo, Marjorie Kirkpatrick, Yasmine Nelken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The public and patients can be powerful sensors for shaping and powering healthcare research. They are joining research teams as investigators and collaborators to co-produce evidence for the practical use of interventions in clinical practice. While clinicians and researchers are encouraged by funders and policymakers to involve the public and patients as partners in research, knowledge on what involvement consists of is limited, and the continuum between consultation, collaboration and co-production are not clearly defined. In this article, we explore Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) and introduce greater involvement through research co-production. Co-production describes ways that research partnership can work through public and patient involvement and we outline the similarities of co-production to "The Commons", a strategy utilized by economists to increase effective use of resources. We share examples of how public and patient involvement have used co-production, to demonstrate financial and health benefits. We then outline practical challenges at system, social and cultural levels and consider how others have worked to resolve them.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPatient education and counseling
Early online date19 Jul 2021
Publication statusEarly online date - 19 Jul 2021


  • Community research
  • Public and patient involvement
  • Patient and Public Involvement
  • Co-production
  • Informed patients
  • Public and patient partnership


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