On the basis of histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, an octadecapeptide was isolated from the skin extract of the Northern Leopard frog (Rana pipiens), This peptide was purified to homogeneity using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and found to have the following primary structure by Edman degradation and pyridylethylation: LVRGCWTKSYPPKPCFVR, in which Cys(5) and Cys(15) are disulfide bridged. The peptide was named peptide leucine-arginine (pLR), reflecting the N- and C-terminal residues. Molecular modeling predicted that pLR possessed a rigid tertiary loop structure with flexible end regions, pLR was synthesized and elicited rapid, noncytolytic histamine release that had a a-fold greater potency when compared with one of the most active histamine-liberating peptides, namely melittin, pLR was able to permeabilize negatively charged unilamellar lipid vesicles but not neutral vesicles, a finding that was consistent with its nonhemolytic action, pLR inhibited the early development of granulocyte macrophage colonies from bone marrow stem cells but did not induce apoptosis of the end stage granulocytes, i,e. mature neutrophils, pLR therefore displays biological activity with both granulopoietic progenitor cells and mast cells and thus represents a novel bioactive peptide from frog skin.
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Salmon, A. L., Cross, L. J. M., Irvine, A., Lappin, T., Dathe, M., Krause, G., Canning, P., Thim, L., Beyermann, M., Rothemund, S., Bienert, M., & Shaw, C. (2001). Peptide leucine arginine, a potent immunomodulatory peptide isolated and structurally characterized from the skin of the Northern Leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 276(13), 10145-10152. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M009680200