We investigate the achievable sum rate and energy efficiency of zero-forcing precoded downlink massive multiple-input multiple-output systems in Ricean fading channels. A simple and accurate approximation of the average sum rate is presented, which is valid for a system with arbitrary rank channel means. Based on this expression, the optimal power allocation strategy maximizing the average sum rate is derived. Moreover, considering a general power consumption model, the energy efficiency of the system with rank-1 channel means is characterized. Specifically, the impact of key system parameters, such as the number of users N, the number of BS antennas M, Ricean factor K and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) ρ are studied, and closed-form expressions for the optimal ρ and M maximizing the energy efficiency are derived. Our findings show that the optimal power allocation scheme follows the water filling principle, and it can substantially enhance the average sum rate in the presence of strong line-of-sight effect in the low SNR regime. In addition, we demonstrate that the Ricean factor K has significant impact on the optimal values of M, N and ρ.
|Title of host publication||2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC)|
|Publisher||Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)|
|Publication status||Published - Sep 2015|
Kong, C., Zhong, C., Matthaiou, M., & Zhang, Z. (2015). Performance of downlink massive MIMO in Ricean fading channels with ZF precoder. In 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICC.2015.7248582