Permanent pacemaker implantation rates following cardiac surgery in the modern era

Jason Kho, Adam Ioannou, Katie E. O’Sullivan, Mark Jones*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
30 Downloads (Pure)


Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation after cardiac surgery in our institution and investigate risk factors for PPM dependency to provide patients with accurate incidence figures at the time of consent for surgery. Methods: Data was collected retrospectively from a single tertiary institution from October 2018 to April 2019 inclusive of 403 patients. Incidence of PPM implantation after various cardiac operations was evaluated. A univariate analysis was carried out to identify the independent risk factors related to PPM implantation. Results: Ten patients required a PPM (2.48%). The most common indication for PPM implantation post-cardiac surgery was complete heart block (N = 7, 70%) followed by bradycardia/pauses (N = 2, 20%) and sick sinus syndrome (N = 1, 10%). PPM implantation after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery was the lowest (0.63%), while combined CABG and valve operations had the highest incidence (5.97%). Independent risk predictors for PPM implantation included female gender (p = 0.03), rheumatic heart disease (p = 0.008), pulmonary hypertension (p = 0.01), redo operations (p = 0.002), mitral valve procedures (p = 0.001), tricuspid valve procedures (p = 0.0003) and combined mitral and tricuspid valve procedures (p = 0.0001). Average length of intensive care unit (ICU)/high-dependency unit (HDU) stay was significantly prolonged for patients who required a PPM post-cardiac surgery. Conclusion: As clinicians, it can be challenging to provide our patients with accurate information on the risk of PPM implantation relative to their operation. A unit-specific data may be a more accurate method of informing our patients on this risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1289-1294
Number of pages6
JournalIrish journal of medical science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 22 May 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, The Author(s).

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Cardiac surgery
  • Cardiology
  • Modern era
  • Permanent pacemaker

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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