'PERMIT' ion migration test for measuring the chloride ion transport of concrete on site

Muhammed Basheer, R.J. Andrews, Desmond Robinson, Adrian Long

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    39 Citations (Scopus)


    The ingress of chlorides into concrete is predominantly by the mechanism of diffusion and the resistance of concrete to the transport of chlorides is generally represented by its coefficient of diffusion. The determination of this coefficient normally requires long test duration (many months). Therefore, rapid test methods based on the electrical migration of ions have widely been used. The current procedure of chloride ion migration tests involves placing a concrete disc between an ion source solution and a neutral solution and accelerating the transport of ions from the source solution to the neutral solution by the application of a potential difference across the concrete disc. This means that, in order to determine the chloride transport resistance of concrete cover, cores should be extracted from the structure and tested in laboratories. In an attempt to facilitate testing of the concrete cover on site, an in situ ion migration test (hereafter referred to as PERMIT ion migration test for the unique identification of the new test) was developed. The PERMIT ion migration test was validated in the lab by carrying out a comparative investigation and correlating the results with the migration coefficient from the one-dimensional chloride migration test, the effective diffusion coefficient from the normal diffusion test and the apparent diffusion coefficient determined from chloride profiles. A range of concrete mixes made with ordinary Portland cement was used for this purpose. In addition, the effects of preferential flow of ions close to the concrete surface and the proximity of reinforcement within the test area on the in situ migration coefficients were investigated. It was observed that the in situ migration index, found in one working day, correlated well with the chloride diffusion coefficients from other tests. The quality of the surface layer of the cover concrete and the location of the reinforcement within the test area were found to affect the flow of ions through the concrete during the test. Based on the data, a procedure to carry out the PERMIT ion migration test was standardised.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)219-229
    Number of pages11
    JournalNDT & E International
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2005

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Engineering(all)
    • Mechanical Engineering


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