Ionic liquids are organic salts with low melting points. Many of these compounds are liquid at room temperature in their pure state. Since they have negligible vapor pressure and would not contribute to air pollution, they are being intensively investigated for a variety of applications, including as solvents for reactions and separations, as non-volatile electrolytes, and as heat transfer fluids. We present melting temperatures, glass transition temperatures, decomposition temperatures, heat capacities, and viscosities for a large series of pyridinium-based ionic liquids. For comparison, we include data for several imidazolium and quaternary ammonium salts. Many of the compounds do not crystallize, but form glasses at temperatures between 188 K and 223 K. The thermal stability is largely determined by the coordinating ability of the anion, with ionic liquids made with the least coordinating anions, like bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, having the best thermal stability. In particular, dimethylaminopyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salts have some of the best thermal stabilities of any ionic liquid compounds investigated to date. Heat capacities increase approximately linearly with increasing molar mass, which corresponds with increasing numbers of translational, vibrational, and rotational modes. Viscosities generally increase with increasing number and length of alkyl substituents on the cation, with the pyridinium salts typically being slightly more viscous than the equivalent imidazolium compounds. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry