Photometry and spectroscopy of the Type Icn supernova 2021ckj. The diverse properties of the ejecta and circumstellar matter of Type Icn supernovae

T. Nagao*, H. Kuncarayakti, K. Maeda, T. Moore, A. Pastorello, S. Mattila, K. Uno, S. J. Smartt, S. A. Sim, L. Ferrari, L. Tomasella, J. P. Anderson, T. W. Chen, L. Galbany, H. Gao, M. Gromadzki, C. P. Gutiérrez, C. Inserra, E. Kankare, E. A. MagnierT. E. Müller-Bravo, A. Reguitti, D. R. Young

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Type Icn supernova (SN) 2021ckj. This rare type of SNe is characterized by a rapid evolution and high peak luminosity as well as narrow lines of highly ionized carbon at early phases, implying an interaction with hydrogen- and helium-poor circumstellar matter (CSM). SN 2021ckj reached a peak brightness of ~-20 mag in the optical bands, with a rise time and a time above half maximum of ~4 and ~10 days, respectively, in the g and cyan bands. These features are reminiscent of those of other Type Icn SNe (SNe 2019hgp, 2021csp, and 2019jc), with the photometric properties of SN 2021ckj being almost identical to those of SN 2021csp. Spectral modeling of SN 2021ckj reveals that its composition is dominated by oxygen, carbon, and iron group elements, and the photospheric velocity at peak is ~10000 km s-1. Modeling the spectral time series of SN 2021ckj suggests aspherical SN ejecta. From the light curve (LC) modeling applied to SNe 2021ckj, 2019hgp, and 2021csp, we find that the ejecta and CSM properties of Type Icn SNe are diverse. SNe 2021ckj and 2021csp likely have two ejecta components (an aspherical high-energy component and a spherical standard-energy component) with a roughly spherical CSM, while SN 2019hgp can be explained by a spherical ejecta-CSM interaction alone. The ejecta of SNe 2021ckj and 2021csp have larger energy per ejecta mass than the ejecta of SN 2019hgp. The density distribution of the CSM is similar in these three SNe, and is comparable to those of Type Ibn SNe. This may imply that the mass-loss mechanism is common between Type Icn (and also Type Ibn) SNe. The CSM masses of SN 2021ckj and SN 2021csp are higher than that of SN 2019hgp, although all these values are within those seen in Type Ibn SNe. The early spectrum of SN 2021ckj shows narrow emission lines from C II and C III, without a clear absorption component, in contrast with that observed in SN 2021csp. The similarity of the emission components of these lines implies that the emitting regions of SNe 2021ckj and 2021csp have similar ionization states, and thus suggests that they have similar properties as the ejecta and CSM, which is also inferred from the LC modeling. Taking the difference in the strength of the absorption features into account, this heterogeneity may be attributed to viewing angle effects in otherwise common aspherical ejecta. In particular, in this scenario SN 2021ckj is observed from the polar direction, while SN 2021csp is seen from an off-axis direction. This is also supported by the fact that the late-time spectra of SNe 2021ckj and 2021csp show similar features but with different line velocities.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA27
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume673
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 May 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Avishay Gal-Yam and Morgan Fraser for providing the observational data of SNe 2019hgp and 2021csp, and Masaomi Tanaka and Jian Jiang for useful discussions. This work is based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO program IDs 105.20DF (PI: Kuncarayakti) and 1103.D-0328, 106.216C, 108.220C (PI: Inserra; as part of ePESSTO+, the advanced Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects Survey). This research made use of TARDIS , a community-developed software package for spectral synthesis in supernovae (Kerzendorf & Sim 2014; Kerzendorf et al. 2022). The development of TARDIS received support from GitHub, the Google Summer of Code initiative, and from ESA’s Summer of Code in Space program. TARDIS is a fiscally sponsored project of NumFOCUS. TARDIS makes extensive use of Astropy and Pyne. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and operated by the California Institute of Technology. T.N. and H.K. are funded by the Academy of Finland projects 324504 and 328898. T.N. acknowledges the financial support by the mobility program of the Finnish Center for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA). K.M. acknowledges support from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI grant JP18H05223, JP20H00174, and JP20H04737. The work is partly supported by the JSPS Open Partnership Bilateral Joint Research Projects between Japan and Finland (K.M. and H.K.; JPJSBP120229923). A.P., L.T. are supported by the PRIN-INAF 2022 project “Shedding light on the nature of gap transients: from the observations to the models”. S.M. acknowledges support from the Academy of Finland project 350458. K.U. acknowledges financial support from Grant-in-Aid for the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellows (22J22705). K.U. also acknowledges financial support from AY2022 DoGS Overseas Travel Support, Kyoto University. This work was funded by ANID, Millennium Science Initiative, ICN12_009. M.G. is supported by the EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 101004719. T.E.M.B. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCIN), the Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) 10.13039/501100011033 under the PID2020-115253GA-I00 HOSTFLOWS project, from Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) under the PIE project 20215AT016 and the I-LINK 2021 LINKA20409, and the program Unidad de Excelencia María de Maeztu CEX2020-001058-M. A.R. acknowledges support from ANID BECAS/DOCTORADO NACIONAL 21202412. L.G. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCIN), the Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) 10.13039/501100011033, and the European Social Fund (ESF) “Investing in your future” under the 2019 Ramón y Cajal program RYC2019-027683-I and the PID2020-115253GA-I00 HOSTFLOWS project, from Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) under the PIE project 20215AT016, and the program Unidad de Excelencia María de Maeztu CEX2020-001058-M.

Funding Information:
The authors thank Avishay Gal-Yam and Morgan Fraser for providing the observational data of SNe 2019hgp and 2021csp, and Masaomi Tanaka and Jian Jiang for useful discussions. This work is based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO program IDs 105.20DF (PI: Kuncarayakti) and 1103.D-0328, 106.216C, 108.220C (PI: Inserra; as part of ePESSTO+, the advanced Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects Survey). This research made use of TARDIS, a community-developed software package for spectral synthesis in supernovae (Kerzendorf & Sim 2014; Kerzendorf et al. 2022). The development of TARDIS received support from GitHub, the Google Summer of Code initiative, and from ESA's Summer of Code in Space program. TARDIS is a fiscally sponsored project of NumFOCUS. TARDIS makes extensive use of Astropy and Pyne. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and operated by the California Institute of Technology. T.N. and H.K. are funded by the Academy of Finland projects 324504 and 328898. T.N. acknowledges the financial support by the mobility program of the Finnish Center for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA). K.M. acknowledges support from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI grant JP18H05223, JP20H00174, and JP20H04737. The work is partly supported by the JSPS Open Partnership Bilateral Joint Research Projects between Japan and Finland (K.M. and H.K.; JPJSBP120229923). A.P., L.T. are supported by the PRIN-INAF 2022 project "Shedding light on the nature of gap transients: from the observations to the models". S.M. acknowledges support from the Academy of Finland project 350458. K.U. acknowledges financial support from Grant-in-Aid for the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellows (22J22705). K.U. also acknowledges financial support from AY2022 DoGS Overseas Travel Support, Kyoto University. This work was funded by ANID, Millennium Science Initiative, ICN12_009. M.G. is supported by the EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 101004719. T.E.M.B. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCIN), the Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) 10.13039/501100011033 under the PID2020-115253GA-I00 HOSTFLOWS project, from Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) under the PIE project 20215AT016 and the I-LINK 2021 LINKA20409, and the program Unidad de Excelencia María de Maeztu CEX2020-001058-M. A.R. acknowledges support from ANID BECAS/DOCTORADO NACIONAL 21202412. L.G. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCIN), the Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) 10.13039/501100011033, and the European Social Fund (ESF) "Investing in your future" under the 2019 Ramón y Cajal program RYC2019-027683-I and the PID2020-115253GA-I00 HOSTFLOWS project, from Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) under the PIE project 20215AT016, and the program Unidad de Excelencia María de Maeztu CEX2020-001058-M.

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Keywords

  • Circumstellar matter
  • Supernovae: general
  • Supernovae: individual: SN 2021ckj

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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