Photosensitized destruction of Chlorella vulgaris by methylene blue or nuclear fast red combined with hydrogen peroxide under visible light irradiation

Cathy McCullagh, Peter K J Robertson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


A considerable number of investigations have started to elucidate the essential roles biological agents play in the biodeterioration of stone. Chemical biocides are becoming increasingly banned because of the environmental and health hazards associated with these toxic substances. The present study reports the photodynamic effect of Methylene Blue (MB) and Nuclear Fast Red (NFR) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the destruction of the algae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) under irradiation with visible light. Illumination of C. vulgaris in the presence of MB or NFR combined with H2O2 results in the decomposition of both the algal species and the photosensitizer. The photodynamic effect was investigated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Differences in mechanism type are reported and are dependent on both the presence and the absence of oxygen. The behavior of each photosensitizer leads to a Type II mechanism and a Type I/Type II combination for MB and NFR, respectively, being concluded. This novel combination could be effective for the remediation of biofilm-colonized stone surfaces.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2421-2425
Number of pages5
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Issue number7
Early online date08 Mar 2006
Publication statusPublished - 01 Apr 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry


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