Physical modelling of near-Earth asteroid (23187) 2000 PN9 with ground-based optical and radar observations

L. Dover*, S. C. Lowry, A. Rożek, B. Rozitis, S. L. Jackson, T. Zegmott, Yu N. Krugly, I. N. Belskaya, A. Fitzsimmons, S. F. Green, C. Snodgrass, P. R. Weissman, M. Brozović, L. A. M. Benner, M. W. Busch, V. R. Ayvazian, V. Chiorny, R. Ya Inasaridze, M. Krugov, S. MykhailovaI. Reva, J. Hibbert

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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We present a physical model and spin-state analysis of the potentially hazardous asteroid (23187) 2000 PN9. As part of a long-term campaign to make direct detections of the Yarkovsky–O’Keefe–Radzievskii–Paddack (YORP) effect, we collected optical light curves of the asteroid between 2006 and 2020. These observations were combined with planetary radar data to develop a detailed shape model, which was used to search for YORP acceleration. We report that 2000 PN9 is a relatively large top-shaped body with a sidereal rotation period of 2.53216 ± 0.00015 h. Although we find no evidence for rotational acceleration, YORP torques smaller than ∼10−8 rad d−2 cannot be ruled out. It is likely that 2000 PN9 is a YORP-evolved object, and may be an example of YORP equilibrium or self-limitation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4581-4595
Number of pages15
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number3
Early online date01 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - 01 Nov 2023


  • methods: data analysis
  • methods: observational
  • minor planets, asteroids: individual: (23187) 2000 PN9
  • radiation mechanisms: Thermal
  • techniques: photometric
  • techniques: radar astronomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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