This study describes the formulation and physicochemical characterization of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) organogels, designed as bioactive implants for improved treatment of infectious diseases of the oral cavity. Organogels were formulated containing a range of concentrations of PAA (3-10% w/w) and metronidazole (2 or 5% w/w, representing a model antimicrobial agent) in different nonaqueous solvents, namely, glycerol (Gly), polyethylene glycol (PEG 400), or propylene glycol (PG). Characterization of the organogels was performed using flow rheometry, compressional analysis, oscillatory rheometry, in vitro mucoadhesion, moisture uptake, and drug release, methods that provide information pertaining to the nonclinical and clinical use of these systems. Increasing the concentration of PAA significantly increased the consistency, compressibility, storage modulus, loss modulus, dynamic viscosity, mucoadhesion, and the rate of drug release. These observations may be accredited to enhanced molecular polymer entanglement. In addition, the choice of solvent directly affected the physicochemical parameters of the organogels, with noticeable differences observed between the three solvents examined. These differences were accredited to the nature of the interaction of PAA with each solvent and, importantly, the density of the resultant physical cross-links. Good correlation was observed between the viscoelastic properties and drug release, with the exception of glycerol-based formulations containing 5 and 10% w/w PAA. This disparity was due to excessive swelling during the dissolution analysis. Ideally, formulations should exhibit controlled drug release, high viscoelasticity, and mucoadhesion, but should flow under minimal stresses. Based on these criteria, PEG 400-based organogels composed of 5% or 10% w/w PAA exhibited suitable physicochemical properties and are suggested to be a potentially interesting strategy for use as bioactive implants designed for use in the oral cavity. © 2008 American Chemical Society.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Organic Chemistry
- Materials Chemistry
- Polymers and Plastics